Mendalami lebih jauh apa itu Passive Voice!

Passive voice

Sudah pernah dengar passive voice? Bila belum, mari kita telah bersama untuk mengetahui hal tersebut beserta fungsinya dan jika sudah, ayo mengasah kemampuanmu! Jika active voice memiliki struktur kalimat subject (orang atau benda yang melakukan sesuatu) + verb + object (orang atau benda yang menerima aksi dari subject) seperti contoh berikut ini, I ate a loaf of bread.

Maka, Passive voice memiliki struktur yang berbeda di mana object dapat kita letakkan di awal yang juga dapat berguna untuk tidak menunjukkan siapa yang melakukan kegiatan tersebut. Struktur yang digunakan dalam kalimat ini ialah object + to be + past participle seperti a loaf of bread was eaten by me.

Kalimat dalam bentuk ini pun merupakan bagian intrinsik dari Bahasa inggris yang apabila digunakan secara tepat, maka alur penulisan dan penyampaian informasi yang merupakan salah satu esensi terpenting dalam penulisan ilmiah dapat dipertahankan dengan maksimal dan membuat informasi tersebut lebih impersonal. Di bawah ini adalah beberapa contoh yang dapat disimak untuk memahami penggunaan passive voice ke dalam sebuah kalimat.

 

Tense

Active

Passive

present simple

She sees stars.

The stars are seen (by her)

present continuous

They are making a car.

A car is being made (by them).

past simple

I made a mistake.

A mistake was made (by me).

past continuous

He was making a cup of tea    

A cup of tea was being made (by him)

present perfect

We have created a masterpiece.

A masterpiece has been created (by us).

pres. perf. continuous

It has been making a noise.

A noise has been being made (by something).

past perfect

You had made a presentation.

A presentation had been made (by you).

future simple

She will cause a problem.

A problem will be created (by her).

future perfect

They will have made a plan.

A plan will have been made (by them).

Lalu, kapan saja kita harus menggunakan passive voice?  

Di saat kita ingin mengganti fokus kalimat.

The learning lesson is taught by Mr. Ichsan.

  • Pada kalimat ini, kita lebih memperhatikan proses pembelajarannya daripada pengajarnya.

The game was played by the students.

  • Di dalam kalimat di atas, permainan yang dimainkan oleh para murid lebih menyita perhatian.

The wall is painted by the teachers.

  • Dinding yang dicat lebih menarik daripada pengajar yang mengecatnya.

Ketika pelakunya dketahui dari konteks kalimat, tidak diketahui, tidak penting, serta orang pada umumnya.

That teakwood chair was made.

  • Kue itu dibuat oleh seorang pengrajin kayu.

My wallet has been stolen.

  • Tidak diketahui siapa pelaku dari pencuri dompet tersebut.

The houses are being constructed.

  • Pembuat bangunan tersebut tidak terlalu perlu untuk diketahui karena fokusnya adalah rumah yang dibangun.

The papers can be found on the table (umum).

  • Benda umum yang dapat ditemukan di mana saja.

Untuk penulisan ilmiah

  1. The alcohol is poured into the jar.
  2. The previous data was entered into Microsoft Excel.
  3. The germs are taken from the lake.
  4. The stone was found on the ground.
  5. The animal was selected to test a product.

Untuk penulisan formal, yang juga dapat digunakan di percakapan formal.

  1. The project will be finished in two months.
  2. The materials will be given the next day.
  3. The meeting will be announced by the group leader.
  4. The front office is handled by the receptionist.
  5. The tasks are completed by the researchers.

Untuk mengubah gaya penulisan ketika menambahkan informasi baru

  1. The video is used for the learning session. The video was taken by Ms. Aulia.
  2. The laptops are used for school activities in the class. The use of laptops inside the classroom was allowed by the principal.
  3. The books are used for supplementary exercises. The books were written by Homie English.
  4. That file is given as an additional task. The file was made by the teachers.
  5. Guns are banned in Indonesia. Guns were banned by the government.

Jika subject tidak begitu natural di dalam sebuah kalimat.

  1. They were shocked by how far they took the path.
  2. She was laughed at by students for how well they created a comedic environment.
  3. I was surprised by how badly the carpenter did their work.
  4. You were easily entertained by every little thing that you saw.
  5. He was abducted at home when everyone was out of town.

Results

#1. The police have arrested the criminals. / The criminals …………………………… by the police.

#2. They congratulated the winners. / The winners …………………………… by them.

#3. The teacher admonished the child. / The child …………………………… by the teacher

#4. She makes dolls. / Dolls …………………………. by her.

#5. Birds make nests. / Nests ………………………. by birds.

#6. I have completed the project. / The project ………………………….. by me.

#7. She prepared the report. / The report …………………………. by her.

#8. He has launched a business. / A business ………………………….. by him.

#9. I have sent the invitation. / The invitation …………………………. by me.

#10. I am feeding the dogs. / The dogs …………………………… by me.

finish

Passive voice (30 downloads)

Sources:

Minton, Timothy D. 2015. In defense of the passive voice in medical writing. The Keio Journal of Medicine 64 (1): 1–10

Banks, D. (07 September 2017). The Extent to which Passive Voice is used in the Scientific Journal Article, 1985-2015. Springer Open. Diakses pada 9 Januari 2023 dari https://functionallinguistics.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40554-017-0045-5

Seonaid. The Passive Voice. Perfect English Grammar. Diakses pada 9 Januari 2023 dari https://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/passive.html

Leave a Comment